"For the word of the Lord is truth, and whatsoever is truth is light..."

Mormon Church History 1844-1877

Church History c. 1844-1877, Exodus And Early Utah Periods
"After outlining developments in Nauvoo, Illinois, following the martyrdom of Joseph Smith, this article traces the exodus from Nauvoo to the West. It then focuses primarily on the political and economic developments associated with establishing a new commonwealth in the Great Basin under Brigham Young's direction. It also reviews Church organization, plural marriage, and the building of temples.

Pioneer Life and Worship
"The first members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints worshiped like the converts of many new religions: their devotions were democratic, fervent, local, and spontaneous."

Reformation (LDS) OF 1856-1857
"A rejuvenation movement initiated by Church leaders in 1856-1857 to rekindle faith and testimony throughout the Church has long been known as the Mormon Reformation."

Pioneer Economy
"The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the major force contributing to the economic development of the Great Basin region in the nineteenth century."

"Nineteenth-century leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints consciously created symbols to buttress their community. The most persistent of these pioneer symbols was the beehive." Encyclopedia of Mormonism

Council Bluffs (Kanesville), Iowa
"Between 1846 and 1852, Council Bluffs, then known as Kanesville, was the headquarters for a substantial LDS presence in western Iowa. During the exodus from Illinois to the Rocky Mountains in the late 1840s, thousands of Latter-day Saints wintered at the Missouri River. After many proceeded westward, winter quarters, their original headquarters on the western bank, was abandoned in early 1848 in response to governmental pressure to leave Indian lands. Latter-day Saints who had not gone west relocated on the east bank of the river, in Iowa." Encyclopedia of Mormonism

Deseret Alphabet
"On April 8, 1852, Brigham Young announced that the Board of Regents of the university of Deseret was preparing a new method of writing English. The idea was to develop a sort of universal system, especially so that foreign-language-speaking converts could learn to read English more easily...The death of President Young in 1877 marked the end of efforts on its behalf." Encyclopedia of Mormonism




State of Deseret
"On February 2, 1848, by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded to the United States an extensive area that included the Great Basin, where Mormon pioneers had begun settlement. Even before the treaty was signed, Church leaders began discussing petitioning the U.S. government for recognition as a state.

Mountain Meadows Massacre [part 1]
Mountian Meadodw Massacre [part 2]

For a century and a half the Mountain Meadows Massacre has shocked and distressed those who have learned of it. The tragedy has deeply grieved the victims’ relatives, burdened the perpetrators’ descendants and Church members generally with sorrow and feelings of collective guilt, unleashed criticism on the Church, and raised painful, difficult questions. How could this have happened? How could members of the Church have participated in such a crime?

Nineteenth-Century Ecclesiastical Courts
"In the nineteenth century, the LDS court system functioned in adjudicating virtually all kinds of legal disputes among Church members. Since the late 1800s, however, the Church courts, now entitled disciplinary councils, have not been used for the arbitration of private disputes."

Handcart Companies
"The large backlog of needy LDS converts awaiting passage from Europe and reduced tithing receipts at home persuaded Brigham Young in 1855 to instruct that the "poor saints" sailing from Liverpool to New York and taking the train to Iowa City should thence "walk and draw their luggage" overland to Utah. In 1856 five such handcart companies were organized to make the 1,300-mile trip on foot from the western railroad terminus at Iowa City to Salt Lake City." Encyclopedia of Mormonism

Planning and Westward Migration
"For Brigham Young and his associates, the 1846 exodus from Nauvoo, far from being a disaster imposed by enemies, was foretold and foreordained—a key to understanding LDS history and a necessary prelude for greater things to come." Encyclopedia of Mormonism

Journal of Discourses
"The Journal of Discourses was a sixteen-page semimonthly subscription publication privately printed in Liverpool, England, in 1854-1886." Encyclopedia of Mormonism

Utah Expedition
"The Utah War of 1857-1858 was the largest military operation in the United States between the times of the Mexican War and the Civil War. It pitted the Mormon militia, called the Nauvoo Legion, against the army and government of the United States in a bloodless but costly confrontation that stemmed from the badly handled attempt by the administration of President James Buchanan to replace Brigham Young as governor of Utah Territory." Encyclopedia of Mormonism

(See Daily Living home page; Church History home page)